Role of Phthalic and Glycolic Acids to Increase Chromium Uptake in Leather Tanning Process

Ahmed Nasr, Mohamed Gaber Taha, Hamdy ElSayed Ali, Radwan Mohamed Ali


Evaluate phthalic (PhA) and glycolic (GA) acids as inducer agents in chrome tanning has been attempted in the present study. Based on pelt weight, three concentrations from PhA or GA (0.5%, 1% and 2%) were studied in pickling step then pelts were tanned with chromium sulphate. Chrome exhaustion, leather uptake, scanning electron micrographs, mechanical and chemical properties were determined for each experimental groups. Using PhA or GA was improved the chromium leather uptake, mechanical properties and reduce chromium waste in spent liquors. Chrome exhaustion greater than 95% and 85% has been achieved when added PhA or GA, respectively. While increasing concentration was enhanced chromium exhaustion, leather uptake and mechanical properties were improved with added concentration 0.5% better than other concentrations. scanning electron micrographs (SEM), fiber bundles were more cementation, cross-linking and higher fullness in added chelating groups than chrome alone. 


Chrome, Chelating, Glycolic, Leather, Phthalic, Tanning

Full Text:



Covington AD. Tanning chemistry the science of leather Cambrige, London: RSC publishing, 2009.

Özlem M. Fundamental aspects of the chrome tanning reaction: PhD. Thesis, British School of Leather Technology, University College Northampton. 2002.

Morera JM, Bartolí E, Chico R. Minimization of the environmental impact of chrome tanning: a new process reusing the tanning floats. J. of Cleaner Prod. 2012; 19: 2128-32

. 4. Kedlaya KJ. Recent technological progress and innovations in the application of chrome in leather making. Leather Sci. 1974; 21: 1-11.

Prasad BGS, Chandrasekaran B, Rao JR, Chandrababu NK, Kanthimathi M, Ramasami T. Prospects for chromium management in tanneries: a critical review. Leather Sci. 1987; 34: 132-48.

Mu C, Lin W, Zhang M. Towards zero discharge of chromium-containing leather waste through improved

Figure 5.Electron micrographs of BCS control and experimental groups

alkali hydrolysis. Waste Management 2003; 23: 835-43.

Sreeram KJ, Ramasami T. Sustaining tanning process through conservation, recovery and better utilization of chromium. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2003; 38: 185-212.

Ludvík. Chrome management in the tanyard. regional programme for pollution control in the tanning industry in South-East Asia. Vienna, 2000. 9. Wang H, Zhou X. A new pretannage with glyoxal and N-thiouridopyromelliatimac acid for high exhaust chrome tannage. JALCA 2006; 101: 81-5.

BASF. Pocket book for leather technologist. 4th ed. Badische Anilin und Soda-Fabrik, 67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany. 2007.

Sangeeta P. Micellar Catalysis of Oxidation of Glycolic acid by N-Bromophthalimide. Colloid J. 2012; 74: 582-8.

Anonymous. DuPont Glycolic Acid, Technology for a changing environment. 2006. Available from: glycolicacidbrochure-extended.pdf.

ASTM. Books of standards Vol.15.04 American Society for Testing and Materials, USA. 2014. 14. SAS. SAS/STAT 9.2 User’s guide. 2nd ed., SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. 2008.

Ramamurthy G, Krishnamoorthy G, Sastry TP, et al. Rationalized method to enhance the chromium uptake in tanning process: role of Gallic acid. Clean Techn. Environ. Policy 2013; 16(3): 647-54.

UNIDO. Acceptable quality standards in the leather and footwear industry. Vienna, 1994. 17. A handbook on mandatory and voluntary standards on leather and footwear products. India, 2007.


  • There are currently no refbacks.