Effects of Temperature and Time of Ion-Exchange on the Mechanical Behavior of Chemically Toughened Soda-Lime Glass

Seun Samuel Owoeye, Akinwumi Gbenga Owoyemi


The effect of immersion time and heating temperature on the mechanical properties of chemically toughened glass was examined. The glass samples of 100×100×20 mm were first immersed in 2 M of NaNO3 salt solution at 450 °C for 4 hr to enrich the surface of glass samples with sodium ions then dipped in 2 M KNO3 solution each at different temperature and time of immersion. Mechanical tests were performed on the samples. The results obtained show that sample C has the highest value of hardness 58.3 HRC while samples A, B, and D also display a better hardness value of 45.7, 57.5, and 55.2 HRC respectively compared with un-treated sample with hardness 40.9 HRC. The impact test also shows that sample C has the highest impact strength of 1.25 KJ/m; sample B has the least impact strength of 0.19 KJ/m while the untreated glass has 0.37 KJ/m. The microstructure examination shows that samples B and C display a structure in resemblance with lamella structure displayed by most composites while samples C and D display the highest flexural strength of 144 and 135.5 MPa respectively. 


Ion exchange, Chemically toughened glass, Hardness, Impact strength, Flexural strength, Microstructure.

Full Text:



Donald IW. Review methods for improving the mechanical properties of oxide glasses. J Mater Sci 1989; 24: 4177-208.

Macrell G. Strength issues in chemically strengthened glass. Riv Stn Sper Vetro 2001; 31: 69-76.

Green DJ, Sglavo VM, Tandon R. US Patent 6, 516, 634 B1. The Penn State Research Foundation. 2003.

Abrams MB, Green DJ, Green SJ. Fracture behavior of engineered stress profile soda lime silicate glass. J Non-Cryst Solids 2003; 321: 10-19.

Bartholome RF, Garfinkel HM. Chemical strengthening of glass. Glass Science and Technology 1980; 5: 217-70.

Akamatsu Y, Nishi M, Tsutsumi K. New method to strengthen glass edges by CO2 laser irradiation. In Glass Processing Days. 2005.

Bogart BS, Dilliard PD. US Patent 3, 615, 322. Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation Lancaster, Ohio. 1971.

Bousbaa C, Madjoubi A, Hamidouche M et al. Effect of annealing and chemical strengthening on soda lime glass erosion wear by sand blasting. J Eur Ceram Soc 2003; 23: 331-43.

Brungs MP, McCartney EP. Chemical strengthening of some borosilicate glasses. Phys Chem Glasses 1975; 16: 44-47.

Varshneya AK, LaCourse WC. Technology of ion exchange strengthening of glass. Proc. Third Int. Conf. on Advances in Fusion and Processing of Glass, 2003; 29: 365-76.

Fine GJ, Danielson PS. Chemical strengthening by the ion exchange of lithium for sodium. Phys Chem Glasses 1988; 29: 134-40.

McCartney ER. Chemical strengthening of glass. Proc R Aust Chem Inst 1972; 39: 175-79.

Hill MJC, Donald IW. Stress profile characteristics and mechanical behavior of chemically strengthened lithium magnesium aluminosilicate glasses. Glass Technology 1989; 30: 123-27.

Kellman C. The how and why of chemically strengthened glass. Glass Ind 1993; 74: 23-24.

Ono H. The production of chemically strengthened glass containers. Glass 1983: 380-83.

Kadogawa Y, Yamate T. Studies on the surface structure of chemically strengthened glasses. Tech Rep Kansai Univ 1971; 12: 57-69.

Shen J, Green DJ. Prediction of stress profiles in ion exchanged glasses. J Non-Cryst Solids 2004; 344: 79-87.

Tyagi V, Varshneya AK. Measurement of progressive stress build up during ion exchange in alkali aluminosilicate glass. J Non-Cryst Solids 1998; 238: 186-92.

Kellman C. Markets widen for chemically strengthened glass. Glass Industry 1987; 68: 26-27.


  • There are currently no refbacks.